1. Diego Rivera, Mickey Mouse and American Art, undated manuscript probably executed November-December 1931 in New York. It was being sold on the internet in 2001. It was item 22369. The asking price was $9,500,000. See URL: http://www.profilesinhistory.com/itempagefolder/item8.html for Diego Rivera’s speech that cites the Mouse.
2. American artist Stuart Davis used commercial images in art, but I have not seen the Mouse. But, Robert Hughes saw similar motif to Disney’s in Davis’s The Mellow Pad, 1945-51. Hughes says, “…the bopping rhythm of nervous shapes, superimposed over what began as a formalized view of the street from a New York window (which leaves its traces in the rectangular background outline of warehouse windows and bays, and the fragment of brick wall seen in yellow and green in the lower left corner), is a vastly more sophisticated version of the kind of abstract ‘musical’ form that Walt Disney, five years before, had attempted in Fantasia.” See Robert Hughes, The Shock of the New. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1981, 331-333.
3. Terry Allen, Michael Arata, Eduardo Arroyo, John Bankston, Meredith Bergman, Peter Blake, Stanford Bigger, Erica Bogin, Christian Boltanski, Michel Boulanger, Blake Boyd, Bob Buccella, Luis Camnitzer, Enrique Chagoya, Tseng Kwong Chi, Emily Cohen, Robbie Conal, Herman Costa, Robert Crumb, Ronnie Cutrone, Daniel Daligand, Mark Dion, Nicole Eisenman, Ron English, Equipo Crόnica (Rafael Solbes and Manuel Valdés), Karen Finley, Howard Finster, Llyn Foulkes, Miran Fukuda, Thomas Gieseke, Robert Grossman, Philip Guston, Keith Haring, Gottfried Helnwein, Steven Hillenburg, Katsuya Ise, Alain Jacquet, Ray Johnson, Kawsone, Ed Kienholz, Emmeric James Konrad, Alexander Kosolapov, Mark Kostabi, Mark Lancaster, Roy Lichtenstein, Sandra Low, John “Crash” Matos, Peter Max, Paul McCarthy, Julia Morrisroe, Takashi Murakami, Claes Oldenburg, Dennis Oppenheim, Nadin Ospina, Eduardo Paolozzi, Kenton Parker, Burt Payne 3, Philip Pearlstein, Joyce Pensato, Richard Pettibone, Lilliana Porter, Bernard Pras, Fiona Rae, Bernard Rancillac, Ernest Ruckle, Brian Ruppel, Peter Saul, Adrian Saxes, Lesley Schiff, Todd Shorr, J. Otto Siebold, Juane Quick-to-See-Smith, William Snyder, Eliezer Sonnenschein, Jose Torres Tama, Carmen Teixidor, Harvé Télémaque, Robin Tewes, Wayne Thiebaud, Arthur Tress, Tu-2 (Ying Ming Tu), Jeramy Turner, Manuel Valdés, Ben Verkaaik, Andy Warhol, Peter Williams, Jennifer Zackin and Rhonda Zwillinger.
4. Bob Thomas, Building A Company, Roy O. Disney And The Creation Of An Entertainment Empire. New York: Hyperion Books, 1998, 182
5. This issue is not yet settled. The Sonny Bono Copyright Extension Act was attacked in litigation which has been carried to the United States Supreme Court in a case heard October 9, 2002. The Court upheld the Act.
6. Bill Hillburg, “Mickey Mouse at center of Supreme Court copyright case, Los Angeles Times Daily News, URL;http://www.salijournal.com/stories/090802/ent_ mickey.html
7. This case is California Superior court case file # BC022365. Amy Wallace, “Lawyers, Tiggers & Bears, Oh My!” Los Angeles Magazine (August 2002): 83.
8. Amy Wallace, “Lawyers, Tiggers & Bears, Oh My!” Los Angeles Magazine (August 2002): 83.
9. No matter how thorough I have been, there is always one more artist, or image by one of these artists, that I did not know about. I apologize to any artist I have missed. It was not intentional. There is a group of artists, some whom are listed in the above footnote, who appear in the book, The Art of Mickey Mouse. This is strictly a picture book, which does not include dates of the artwork or any biographical material on the artists. I have not mentioned most of these artists because most of the images in the book were created specifically for this book in the late 1980s, mainly by artists who are illustrators, designers, or comic book artists by profession. Another group of artists who were shown by the Alternative Art Museum exhibit on the Mouse, which was curated by Geno Rodriguez and is now archived on the Internet. All the other artists and material were collected from other exhibits that I have seen (museums, galleries), articles, books, catalogues, reviews, posters, ads in art magazines, the artists’ files and other material in the Art Library at LACMA, Art Library at MOMA, The Roy Lichtenstein Foundation, or The Andy Warhol Foundation. Some of these artists were pointed out to my by friends. Thank you for looking. Other material has been collected from: Special Collections at the University of Hawaii, The Henry Ford Museum and Greenfield Village Benson Ford Research Center, Getty Special Collections, the Archives of American Art in Washington D.C., the Walt Disney Archive, lawyers, psychiatrists, artists, spouses of artists, art dealers, museum curators, and many others.
10. Frozen Walt, is a sculpture that is based on the rumor that Walt Disney was frozen and remains in a cryogenic state awaiting to be revived later when medical science can cure him. He died of lung cancer in December of 1966.
11. Robert Heide and John Gilman, Disneyana, Classic Collectibles 1928-1958. New York: Hyperion, 1995, 33.
12. There is a long legal history in the United States and abroad of Disney’s defense of its rights to Mickey and other characters.
13. Benday dots refers to the miniscule dots of transferred color that are produced in lithography and photoengraving printing process invented by Benjamin Day.
14. Doug Harvey conversation with Lichtenstein, reported to me in 1994 by Harvey.
15. Peter Selz, Henry Geldzahler, Hilton Kramer, Dore Ashton, Leo Steinberg, Stanley Kunitz, “A Symposium on Pop Art,” reprinted in Steven Henry Madoff, edited. Pop Art: A Critical History. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997, 78.
16. Selz, Geldzahler, Kramer, Ashton, Steinberg, Kunitz, 66.
17. Lichtenstein’s Look Mickey now hangs at the National Gallery in Washington D.C., except when it is on loan. I saw it both at the Pompidou, and again at the National Gallery. Oldenburg’s Mouse seems to be everywhere. Ospina’s Mouse was in a show in Madrid. Helnwein’s and Pensato’s were at the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art. This is not comprehensive by any means. The dissemination of the image of the Mouse by artists is as prolific as Disney.
18. In general I have simplified the discussion by stating that the artists have used the Mouse, instead of repeating the Mouse and other Disney images. Most of the images used by the artists are of the Mouse, but there are some exceptions, including the Duck, Winnie the Pooh, Minnie, and the Castle from Disneyland.
Last updated on Sat Jan 8 20:45:17 2005